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By George H. R. Parkinson

ISBN-10: 3515002723

ISBN-13: 9783515002721

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Grua, p. ), Grua, p. 480; Paper on the Principle of Reason, C 14). In Causa Dei par. 20 Leibniz opposes spontaneity to 'the necessity which destroys deliberation'. By this 'necessity' he must mean absolute, _not hypothetical necessity; his point is that if it is logically necessary that a person should do something, then he cannot deliberate about it. In GP VII 108, however, he goes further than this, saying that that is spontaneous which is neither necessary nor compelled (coactum). 2) who is prevented physically from doing something, although the performance of the action is logically possible.

0n the view that 'freedom' means spontaneity and reason or intelligence, cf. GP IV, 362; C 25; GP VII, 108. Freedom as spontaneity and choice 59 joyed turning towards the north; it would think that it turns because it enjoys it, independently of any other cause. (Cf. T pars. 292-3, 299; GP VI, 290, 293-5). The example is reminiscent of one used by Spinoza, who says that if a moving stone could think, and were conscious of its striving to continue in motion, it would believe that it is free and would think that it continues in motion because it wants do (Ep.

Such justice 'is founded only on fitness (la convenance), which demands a certain satisfaction as the expiation of a bad action' (T par. 73, GP VI, 141); 'The harmony of things demands a satisfaction, an evil which consists in suffering (un mal de passion), which makes the mind perceive its fault after the voluntary action to which it has given its agreement' (Remarks on King, loc. ). This kind of fitness, Leibniz adds, satisfies not only the injured party, but also the wise who see it; one may compare the way in which beautiful music or architecture satisfies the mind (T par.

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Leibniz on Human Freedom by George H. R. Parkinson

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