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By Clarence Irving Lewis

ISBN-10: 1406751677

ISBN-13: 9781406751673

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Chakrabarti 1994: 969) Damit legt Chakrabarti ein neues transzendentales Argument vor, das noch anspruchsvoller ist als das alte. Während es bislang darum ging, die Verläßlichkeit einer Mehrzahl von Zeugnissen zu begründen, um daraus PR abzuleiten, geht es Chakrabarti um nichts weniger als den Nachweis einer Vorrangstellung von Zeugnissen gegenüber anderen Erkenntnisquellen, wobei hier anscheinend bereits vorausgesetzt wird, daß Testimony im Sinne von PR eine echte Erkenntnisquelle darstellt.

The contrasted position I have suggested is that a hearer is always required thus to monitor and assess a speaker, though this may be automatic and unconscious. She must engage in a piece of psychological interpretation of her informant, constructing an explanation of her utterance as an intentional speech act. Estimates of her sincerity and her competence, or their lack, will be part of this explanatory mini-theory. Within the interpretative exercise sincerity is the default setting: it can be assumed unless there are signs of its lack.

H. von ‚Reduktionen’ unter bestimmten Umständen. Sie beschränkt sich in ihrer Argumentation darauf, den von ihr so genannten „negative claim (NC)“ zu entkräften, der mit not-(R-Poss) identisch ist: „NC: It is not, generally speaking, possible for a hearer to obtain independent confirmation that a given speaker is trustworthy – that what she says will be true“ (Fricker 1994: 125). Wenn dieser NC zutreffe, könne Wissen durch das Zeugnis anderer nur erworben werden, wenn es keine Notwendigkeit für eine unabhängige Bestätigung der Glaubwürdigkeit des Sprechers gebe – mit anderen Worten: wenn die PRThese haltbar sei (vgl.

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An Analysis Of Knowledge And Valuation by Clarence Irving Lewis

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