Download e-book for iPad: A treatise on universal algebra by Alfred North Whitehead

By Alfred North Whitehead

ISBN-10: 1108001688

ISBN-13: 9781108001687

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) was once both celebrated as a mathematician, a thinker and a physicist. He collaborated together with his former scholar Bertrand Russell at the first variation of Principia Mathematica (published in 3 volumes among 1910 and 1913), and after numerous years educating and writing on physics and the philosophy of technology at collage university London and Imperial university, was once invited to Harvard to coach philosophy and the idea of schooling. A Treatise on common Algebra was once released in 1898, and used to be meant to be the 1st of 2 volumes, although the second one (which was once to hide quaternions, matrices and the overall idea of linear algebras) used to be by no means released. This booklet discusses the overall ideas of the topic and covers the themes of the algebra of symbolic common sense and of Grassmann's calculus of extension.

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98) yields (a ⊗ b) (c ⊗ d) = (b · c) a ⊗ d, a, b, c, d ∈ En . 98) (a ⊗ b) (c ⊗ d) x = (a ⊗ b) [(c ⊗ d) x] = (d · x) (a ⊗ b) c = (d · x) (b · c) a = (b · c) (a ⊗ d) x = [(b · c) a ⊗ d] x, ∀x ∈ En . 82). Powers, polynomials and functions of second-order tensors. 9 Special Operations with Second-Order Tensors Am = AA . . A , m = 1, 2, 3 . . 106) k, l = 0, 1, 2 . . 107) With the aid of the tensor powers a polynomial of A can be defined by g (A) = a0 I + a1 A + a2 A2 + . . + am Am = m ak Ak . 108) k=0 g (A): Linn →Linn represents a tensor function mapping one second-order tensor into another one within Linn .

77) 46 2 Vector and Tensor Analysis in Euclidean Space Γijk = Γkij = 0, i, j, k = 1, 2, . . , n. 78) Example. 16). 73) are zero. Thus, eq. 79) while all other Christoffel symbols of the first kind Γijk (i, j, k = 1, 2, 3) are likewise zero. 28)2 we further obtain Γ1ij = g 11 Γij1 = r−2 Γij1 , Γ3ij = g 33 Γij3 = Γij3 , Γ2ij = g 22 Γij2 = Γij2 , i, j = 1, 2, 3. 75) vanish. Now, we are in a position to express the covariant derivative in terms of the vector or tensor components by means of the Christoffel symbols.

125) implies the uniqueness of the inverse. Indeed, if A−1 and A−1 are two distinct tensors both inverse to A then there exists at least one vector y ∈ En such that A−1 y = A−1 y. 125) into account we immediately come to the contradiction. 37) T A−1 = AT −1 = A−T . 126) The composition of two arbitrary invertible tensors A and B is inverted by −1 (AB) = B−1 A−1 . 127) Indeed, let y = ABx. 124) x = B−1 A−1 y, ∀x ∈ En . On the basis of transposition and inversion one defines the so-called orthogonal tensors.

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